In cataract, there is a buildup of protein in the lens of the eye which makes it cloudy. This prevents light from passing clearly through the lens, thereby causing loss of vision.
Advancing age is a primary reason for cataract. With age, protein of the lens turns opaque. Other causes of cataract are metabolic disorders such as diabetes, excessive exposure to sunlight, lifestyle disorders like heavy alcohol consumption and smoking. Injury to the eye can also lead to clouding of the lens of the eye.
Over the years the size of corneal incision made during cataract surgery has considerably reduced leading to improved visual outcome & quicker post procedure recovery for the patient.
This is a new technique where the cataract is removed manually through micro incision. The small incision heals fast enabling you to recover quickly.
Phacoemulsification is the technology made use of in micro incision cataract surgery. It entails breaking down the cataract for fitting artificial intra-ocular lenses inside the eyes.
Phacoemulsification for micro-incision cataract surgery is the most preferred option for eye-sight correction these days because of the many benefits attached to it.
Some of them are as listed below:
An intraocular lens (IOL) is an implanted lens in the eye, usually replacing the existing crystalline lens because it has been clouded over by a cataract, or as a form of refractive surgery to change the eye's optical power. It usually consists of a small plastic lens with plastic side struts, called haptics, to hold the lens in place within the capsular bag inside the eye.
IOLs were traditionally made of an inflexible material (PMMA) though this largely been superseded by the use of flexible materials. Most IOLs fitted today are fixed monsoonal lenses matched to distance vision. However, other types are available, such as multifocal IOLs which provide the patient with multiple-focused vision at far and reading distance, and adaptive IOLs which provide the patient with limited visual accommodation.
Insertion of an intraocular lens for the treatment of cataracts is the most commonly performed eye surgical procedure. The procedure can be done under local anesthesia with the patient awake throughout the operation. The use of a flexible IOL enables the lens to be rolled for insertion into the capsule through a very small incision, thus avoiding the need for stitches, and this procedure usually takes less than 30 minutes in the hands of an experienced ophthalmologist.
The recovery period is about 2-3 weeks. After surgery, patients should avoid strenuous exercise or anything else that significantly increases blood pressure. They should also visit their ophthalmologists regularly for several months so as to monitor the implants.
Multifocal lens implantation is performed at our centre for patients who are above the age of 40 years and want the correction for near as well as distant vision.
It is performed by implanting multifocal IOL after performing cataract surgery. It is also suggested for young patients who are not fit candidate for LVC / ICL implantation.
Today an intraocular lens (IOL) is used to replace the human lens in more than 95% of cataract patients. The IOL is normally implanted in the same procedure as cataract removal. The lens is typically implanted behind Iris or coloured portion of the eye and cannot be seen from the outside.
The laser (excimer laser), a state-of-the-art shaping device, is used to change the shape of the cornea to change its focusing power. The laser polishes the corneal surface and the tissue is selectively removed to reshape the cornea. In LASIK, the high-precision laser beam sculpts the cornea, correcting its curvature, so that images are sharply focused on retina.
Laser procedures differ in the kind of tissue removal that is carried out. Conventional LASIK often created night vision difficulties, as there was an alternation in the natural shape of the cornea. This led to some vision disturbances, particularly in dark conditions.
It makes only few seconds for the LASIK laser to precisely remove tissue from the cornea-for near-sightedness from the center, for far-sightedness in a ring pattern around the center of the cornea. During treatment, an infrared camera records any involuntary eye movement. The rapid "eye tracker" ensures that the laser beam is always aimed at the right spot. In most cases, patient can already see reasonably well without spectacles or contact lenses immediately after laser treatment. The complete process generally takes just a few weeks.
The ICL (Implantable Contact Lens) is a state-of-art refractive error solution that is ideal for anyone who has the need or desire for removal of power with high quality of vision correction. ICL or Implantable Contact Lens, as the name suggests, is a kind of lens which is implanted into the eye and does not require frequent removal like a normal contact lens.
ICL is an ‘implantable collamer lens’ that works with the eye to correct vision. It is the choice for patients with an active lifestyle and those who cannot accept anything less than highest quality vision.
ICL is the ideal procedure for patients of age between 20 years to 40 years of age; it is indicated for patients who have very high myopia or hypermetropia with thin cornea and are not eligible for lasik procedure, who want to correct nearsightedness and farsightedness.
TORIC ICL is a great option for patients it is indicated for the patients who have very high refractive error along with astigmatism (cylindrical numbers) and are not elligle for laser vision correction. Each of the lenses is custom made to meet the needs of an individual patient.
Glaucoma is a very dangerous eye disease and a silent killer of vision too and second most common cause of blindness in the world. As it does not display any early warning signs, many sufferers do not know that they may have Glaucoma, and by the time there is a noticeable symptom, an irreversible damage could have already occurred.
It causes damage to the optic nerve because of elevated intraocular pressure. In its early stages, glaucoma may present no symptoms and can gradually damage sight without warning.
Since Glaucoma has no noticeable symptoms. It can only be diagnosed through a routine Eye check up by measuring the Eye Pressure and some specific tests of which the Gold Standard test is Field of vision Test (Perimetry). Only an Eye Examination can detect glaucoma.
Those over 40, years of age having a family history of Glaucoma, high Myopia, high blood pressure or diabetes and those who have suffered any eye injuries in the past or have used steroids are all at high risk of Glaucoma. While older adults are at high risk, it can strike at any age.
Glaucoma is usually controlled with eye drops taken daily. These medications lower eye pressure, either by decreasing the amount of aqueous fluid produced within the eye or by improving the flow through the drainage angle.
The surgical management of glaucoma is offered to patients if drug therapies have not been satisfactory or are inappropriate (e.g., because of the desire to avoid drugs during pregnancy). There are two types of surgical treatment: those using a laser and those using surgical techniques. During laser treatment for open-angle glaucoma, laser light is aimed at the eye's trabecular meshwork (the eye's drainage system). The laser application results in a biological and mechanical reaction in the trabecular meshwork to open the previously blocked meshwork and increases the flow of aqueous fluid from the eye.
A pterygium is a wing-shaped extension of thickened tissue on the surface (conjunctiva) of the white of the eye, which grows onto the adjacent cornea (the window into the eye).
If a pterygium is affecting your vision, or is particularly unsightly, and cannot be managed with eye drops, pterygium surgery may be the answer. Pterygium surgery is performed under local anesthetic, and only takes about an hour.
During pterygium surgery, your surgeon will carefully remove the pterygium from your eye, and cover the area with a small graft of your own tissue. You shouldn't feel any pain or major discomfort during surgery, though your eye will feel scratchy for a few days afterwards, and will be red for a couple of weeks. You'll need to use eye drops for about a month, and the stitches used will dissolve naturally.
A pterygium is a triangular fibrovascular subepithelial in growth of degenerative bulbar conjunctival tissue over the limbus onto the cornea.
Loss of vision occurs if it extends across the visual axis. Hence a combined procedure consisting of pterygium excision and cataract extraction is to be done. Simultaneous pterygium and cataract surgery is necessary only in patients who cannot easily access eye care facilities.
The simultaneous procedure is beneficial to both the hospital and the patient and makes for a better visual prognosis in patients undergoing cataract extraction.
The optical design of fundus cameras is based on the principle of monocular indirect ophthalmoscopy.A fundus camera provides an upright, magnified view of the fundus. The optics of a fundus camera are similar to those of an indirect ophthalmoscope in that the observation and illumination systems follow dissimilar paths.
Fundus photographs are ocular documentation that record the appearance of a patient's retina. The photographs allow the clinician to study a patient's retina, detect retinal changes and review a patient's retinal findings with a coworker. Fundus photographs are routinely called upon in a wide variety of ophthalmic conditions.
Fundus photography is used to inspect anomalies associated to diseases that affect the eye and to monitor the progression of the disease. It is vital for disease processes such as macular degeneration, retinal neoplasms, choroid disturbances and diabetic retinopathy. Additionally it aids in identifying glaucoma, multiple sclerosis, and other central nervous system abnormalities. It evaluates irregularities in the fundus, monitors the progression of a disease, management and therapeutic outcome. They are crucial to create a starting point to better understand a disease's progression. Fundus photographs may be useful if there is a new disease affecting the fundus and for the planning of additional management options. The medical necessity of fundus photography and other diagnostic imaging must be recorded in an orderly fashion so that the clinician is able to compare photographs of a patient from different timelines.